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 Post subject: Re: A state of war between Crow Creek Dakotah Oyate and the US
PostPosted: Fri Apr 16, 2010 11:23 pm 
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Location: Crow Creek, Dakota Territory
Honor your treaties america.

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 Post subject: Re: A state of war between Crow Creek Dakotah Oyate and the US
PostPosted: Fri Apr 16, 2010 11:26 pm 
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Location: Crow Creek, Dakota Territory
TREATY WITH THE SIOUX
Sept. 29, 1837
Proclamation, June 15, 1838.
7 Stat., 538

Articles of a treaty, made at the City of Washington, between Joel R. Poinsett, thereto specially authorized by the President of the United States, and certain chiefs and braves of the Sioux nation of Indians.

ARTICLE 1st. The chiefs and braves representing the parties having an interest therein, cede to the United States all their land, east of the Mississippi river, and all their islands in the said river.

ARTICLE 2nd. In consideration of the cession contained in the preceding article, the United States agree to the following stipulations on their part.

First. To invest the sum of $300,000 (three hundred thousand dollars) in such safe and profitable State stocks as the President may direct, and to pay to the chiefs and braves as aforesaid, annually, forever, an income of not less than five per cent. thereon; a portion of said interest, not exceeding one third, to be applied in such manner as the President may direct, and the residue to be paid in specie, or in such other manner, and for such objects, as the proper authorities of the tribe may designate.

Second. To pay to the relatives and friends of the chiefs and braves, as aforesaid, having not less than one quarter of Sioux blood, $110,000 (one hundred and ten thousand dollars) to be distributed by the proper authorities of the tribe, upon principles to be determined by the chiefs and braves signing this treaty, and the War Department.

Third. To apply the sum of $90,000 (ninety thousand dollars)to the payment of Just debts of the Sioux Indians, interested in the lands herewith ceded.

Fourth. To pay to the chiefs and braves as aforesaid an annuity for twenty years of $10,000 (ten thousand dollars)in goods, to be purchased under the direction of the President, and delivered at the expense of the United States.

Fifth. To expend annually for twenty years, for the benefit of Sioux Indians, parties to this treaty, the sum of $8,250 (eight thousand two hundred and fifty dollars) in the purchase of medicines, agricultural implements and stock, and for the support of a physician, farmers, and blacksmiths, and for other beneficial objects.

Sixth. In order to enable the Indians aforesaid to break up and improve their lands, the United States will supply, as soon as practicable, after the ratification of this treaty, agricultural implements, mechanics' tools, cattle, and such other articles as may be useful to them, to an amount not exceeding $10,000, (ten thousand dollars.)

Seventh. To expend annually, for twenty years, the sum of $5.500 (five thousand five hundred dollars) in the, purchase of provisions, to be delivered at the expense of the United States.

Eighth. To deliver to the chiefs and braves signing this treaty, upon their arrival at St. Louis, $6,000 (six thousand dollars) in goods.

ARTICLE 3rd. (Stricken out by Senate.)

ARTICLE 4th. This treaty shall be binding on the contracting parties as soda as it shall be ratified by the United States.

In testimony whereof, the said Joel R. Poinsett, and the undersigned chiefs and braves of the Sioux nation, have hereunto set their hands, at the City of Washington, this 29th day of September A. D. 1837.

J. R. Poinsett.

Medawakantons:
Tah-tape-saah, The Upsetting Wind,
Wah-keah-tun-kah, Big Thunder,
Mah-zah-hoh-tah, Grey Iron,
Tautunga-munne, Walking Buffalo,
Eu-hah-kaakow, He that comes last,
Mah-kuah-pah, he that shakes the Earth,
Tah-mah-zah-hoh-wash-taa, The Iron of handsome voice,
Watt-chu-dah, The Dancer,
Mah-zah-tunkah, The Big Iron,
Mau-po-koah-munnee, He that runs after the clouds,
Tah-chunk-wash-taa, Good Road,
Mare-pu-ah-nasiah, Standing Cloud,
Koi-moko, Afloat,
Mau-pu-wee-chastah, White Man,
Mau-pu-ah-mah-zah, Iron Cloud,
Tah-chunek-oh-dutah, The Red Road,
Wasson-wee-chastish-nee, The Bad Hail,
Hoe-yah-pah, the Eagle Head Annon-ge-nasiah,
He that Stands on Both sides,
Chaudus-ka-mumee, the Walking Circle,
Tee-oh-du-tah, the Red Lodge.

In presence of--

Chauncy Bush, secretary.
Mahlon Dickerson, Secretary of the Navy.
W. J. Worth, lieutenant-colonel.
Geo. W. Jones, of Wisconsin.Law.
Taliaferro, U. S. agent at St. Peters.
Wm. Hawley.
C. A. Harris, Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
S. Cooper, chief clerk War Department.
D. Kurtz, chief clerk Indian Office.
Charles Calvert.
S. Campbell, interpreter.

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 Post subject: Re: A state of war between Crow Creek Dakotah Oyate and the US
PostPosted: Fri Apr 16, 2010 11:35 pm 
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the distinguished thieves and honored liars of congress saw fit to remove the 3rd article without knowledge or consent of the mdewakanton nation this was the article granting the mdewakanton People a reservation west of the missippi which i do not believe any of these mdewakanton wichasa would have signed otherwise. every principle that this so called great american nation is founded on in truth is nothing more than a hollow shell because the real truth is that the united states was built on the bloody, murdered bodies of indian men, women, children and cultures that were ancient long before there was a western "civilization".

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 Post subject: Re: A state of war between Crow Creek Dakotah Oyate and the US
PostPosted: Fri Apr 16, 2010 11:46 pm 
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TREATY OF FORT LARAMIE
September 17, 1851

11 Stat., p. 749.

Articles of a treaty made and concluded at Fort Laramie, in the Indian Territory, between D. D. Mitchell, superintendent of Indian affairs, and Thomas Fitzpatrick, Indian agent, commissioners specially appointed and authorized by the President of the United States, of the first part, and the chiefs, headmen, and braves of the following Indian nations, residing south of the Missouri River, east of the Rocky Mountains, and north of the lines of Texas and New Mexico, viz, the Sioux or Dahcotahs, Cheyennes, Arrapahoes, Crows, Assinaboines, Gros-Ventre Mandans, and Arrickaras, parties of the second part, on the seventeenth day of September, A.D. one thousand eight hundred and fifty-one.

ARTICLE 1. The aforesaid nations, parties to this treaty, having assembled for the purpose of establishing and confirming peaceful relations amongst themselves, do hereby covenant and agree to abstain in future from all hostilities whatever against each other, to maintain good faith and friendship in all their mutual intercourse, and to make an effective and lasting peace.

ARTICLE 2. The aforesaid nations do hereby recognize the right of the United States Government to establish roads, military and other posts, within their respective territories.

ARTICLE 3. In consideration of the rights and privileges acknowledged in the preceding article, the United States bind themselves to protect the aforesaid Indian nations against the commission of all depredations by the people of the said United States, after the ratification of this treaty.

ARTICLE 4. The aforesaid Indian nations do hereby agree and bind themselves to make restitution or satisfaction for any wrongs committed, after the ratification of this treaty, by any band or individual of their people, on the people of the United States, whilst lawfully residing in or passing through their respective territories.

ARTICLE 5. The aforesaid Indian nations do hereby recognize and acknowledge the following tracts of country, included within the metes and boundaries hereinafter designated, as their respective territories, viz;

The territory of the Sioux or Dahcotah Nation, commencing the mouth of the White Earth River, on the Missouri River; thence in a southwesterly direction to the forks of the Platte River; thence up the north fork of the Platte River to a point known as the Red Buts, or where the road leaves the river; thence along the range of mountains known as the Black Hills, to the head-waters of Heart River; thence down Heart River to its mouth; and thence down the Missouri River to the place of beginning.

The territory of the Gros Ventre, Mandans, and Arrickaras Nations, commencing at the month of Heart River; thence up the Missouri River to the mouth of the Yellowstone River; thence up the Yellowstone River to the mouth of Powder River in a southeasterly direction, to the head-waters of the Little Missouri River; thence along the Black Hills to the head of Heart River, and thence down Heart River to the place of beginning.

The territory of the Assinaboin Nation, commencing at the mouth of Yellowstone River; thence up the Missouri River to the mouth of the Muscle-shell River; thence from the mouth of the Muscle-shell River in a southeasterly direction until it strikes the head-waters of Big Dry Creek; thence down that creek to where it empties into the Yellowstone River, nearly opposite the mouth of Powder River, and thence down the Yellowstone River to the place of beginning.

The territory of the Blackfoot Nation, commencing at the mouth of Muscle-shell River; thence up the Missouri River to its source; thence along the main range of the Rocky Mountains, in a southerly direction, to the head-waters of the northern source of the Yellowstone River; thence down the Yellowstone River to the mouth of Twenty-five Yard Creek; thence across to the head-waters of the Muscle-shell River, and thence down the Muscle-shell River to the place of beginning.

The territory of the Crow Nation, commencing at the mouth of Powder River on the Yellowstone; thence up Powder River to its source; thence along the main range of the Black Hills and Wind River Mountains to the head-waters of the Yellowstone River; thence down the Yellowstone River to the mouth of Twenty-five Yard Creek; thence to the head waters of the Muscle-shell River; thence down the Muscle-shell River to its mouth; thence to the head-waters of Big Dry Creek, and thence to its mouth.

The territory of the Cheyennes and Arrapahoes, commencing at the Red Bute, or the place where the road leaves the north fork of the Platte River; thence up the north fork of the Platte River to its source; thence along the main range of the Rocky Mountains to the head-waters of the Arkansas River; thence down the Arkansas River to the crossing of the Santa Fe' road; thence in a northwesterly direction to the forks of the Platte River, and thence up the Platte River to the place of beginning.

It is, however, understood that, in making this recognition and acknowledgement, the aforesaid Indian nations do not hereby abandon or prejudice any rights or claims they may have to other lands; and further, that they do not surrender the privilege of hunting, fishing, or passing over any of the tracts of country heretofore described.

ARTICLE 6. The parties to the second part of this treaty having selected principals or head-chiefs for their respective nations, through whom all national business will hereafter be conducted, do hereby bind themselves to sustain said chiefs and their successors during good behavior.

ARTICLE 7. In consideration of the treaty stipulations, and for the damages which have or may occur by reason thereof to the Indian nations, parties hereto, and for their maintenance and the improvement of their moral and social customs, the United States bind themselves to deliver to the said Indian nations the sum of fifty thousand dollars per annum for the term of ten years, with the right to continue the same at the discretion of the President of the United States for a period not exceeding five years thereafter, in provisions merchandise, domestic animals, and agricultural implements, in such proportions as may be deemed best adapted to their condition by the President of the United States, to be distributed in proportion to the population of the aforesaid Indian nations.

ARTICLE 8. It is understood and agreed that should any of the Indian nations, parties to this treaty, violate any of the provisions thereof, the United States may withhold the whole or a portion of the annuities mentioned in the preceding article from the nation so offending, until, in the opinion of the President of the United States, proper satisfaction shall have been made.

In testimony whereof the said D. D. Mitchell and Thomas Fitzpatrick commissioners as aforesaid, and the chiefs, headmen, and braves, parties hereto, have set their hands and affixed their marks, on the day and at the place first above written.

D. D. Mitchell
Thomas Fitzpatrick
Commissioners.

Sioux:
Mah-toe-wha-you-whey, his x mark,
Mah-kah-toe-zah-zah, his x mark,
Bel-o-ton-kah-tan-ga, his x mark,
Nah-ka-pah-gi-gi, his x mark,
Mak-toe-sah-bi-chis, his x mark,
Meh-wha-tah-ni-hans-kah, his x mark,
Cheyennes:
Wah-ha-nis-satta, his x mark,
Voist-ti-toe-vetz, his x mark,
Nahk-ko-me-ien, his x mark,
Koh-kah-y-wh-cum-est, his x mark,
Arrapahoes:
Bè-ah-té-a-qui-sah, his x mark,
Neb-ni-bah-seh-it, his x mark,
Beh-kah-jay-beth-sah-es, his x mark,
Crows:

Arra-tu-ri-sash, his x mark,
Doh-chepit-seh-chi-es, his x mark,
Assinaboines:
Mah-toe-wit-ko, his x mark,
Toe-tah-ki-eh-nan, his x mark,
Mandans and Gros Ventres:
Nochk-pit-shi-toe-pish, his x mark,
She-oh-mant-ho, his x mark,
Arickarees:
Koun-hei-ti-shan, his x mark,
Bi-atch-tah-wetch, his x mark,


In the presence of---

A. B. Chambers, secretary.
S. Cooper, colonel, U. S. Army.
R. H. Chilton, captain, First Drags.
Thomas Duncan, captain, Mounted Rifiemen.
Thos. G. Rhett, brevet captain R. M. R.
W. L. Elliott, first lieutenant R. M. R.
C. Campbell, interpreter for Sioux.
John S. Smith, interpreter for Cheyennes.
Robert Meldrum, interpreter for the Crows.
H. Culbertson, interpreter for Assiniboines and Gros Ventres.
Francois L'Etalie, interpreter for Arickarees.
John Pizelle, interpreter for the Arrapahoes.
B. Gratz Brown.
Robert Campbell.
Edmond F. Chouteau.

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 Post subject: Re: A state of war between Crow Creek Dakotah Oyate and the US
PostPosted: Fri Apr 16, 2010 11:53 pm 
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the above treaty as signed was ratified by the united states senate with an amendment changing the annuity in Article 7 from fifty to ten years, subject to acceptance by the tribes. Assent of all tribes except the Crows was procured.

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 Post subject: Re: A state of war between Crow Creek Dakotah Oyate and the US
PostPosted: Sat Apr 17, 2010 12:10 am 
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In 1953 the Quinault Nation came under attack under Public Law 280. The Quinault Nations constitution designates the general council as their ultimate authority to make decisions for the People. On three different occasions the Quinault Nation voted down acceptance of Public Law 280. What did the bureau of indian affairs do... called a meeting of the business council of the Quinault Nation, FORTY miles from the reservation at Hoquiam where they pressured the business council to sign a resolution requesting state jurisdiction under Public Law 280. Oregon Governor Albert Rosselini signed a proclamation that extended state law to the Quinault reservation.
The Quinault Nation sued and oregon state court judge Warner Poyhonen found the business committee had no authority to sign the resolution for the Quinault Nation.

In a scathing opinion Judge Poyhonen held the bureau of indian affairs accountable for its duplicity in this matter:

“I have strong reason to believe that certain employees of the government of the United States actively persuaded, induced, encouraged and caused said resolution to be signed by the members of the business committee. There is reason to believe that the resolution was in fact prepared by certain employees of the United States government. It is significant that the meeting at which the resolution was signed was held not on the reservation (which was the customary meeting place) but in a room in the U.S Post Office Building in Hoquiam at which certain Federal employees were present and participated in the discussions”

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 Post subject: Re: A state of war between Crow Creek Dakotah Oyate and the US
PostPosted: Sat Apr 17, 2010 12:16 am 
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these are the very types of lies and coercion that the united states government uses to this day when dealing with the First Nations of america. so when i read things like...

"the above treaty as signed was ratified by the united states senate with an amendment changing the annuity in Article 7 from fifty to ten years, subject to acceptance by the tribes. Assent of all tribes except the Crows was procured."

i wonder exactly what means were used to procure the necessary acceptance to change the annuities from 50 to 10 years? i just don't see the Ancestors willingly signing away the means to support future generations of the People.

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 Post subject: Re: A state of war between Crow Creek Dakotah Oyate and the US
PostPosted: Sat Apr 17, 2010 12:27 am 
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We are not and never will be americans america... we are the indigenous stewards of this land and we have our own Ways of Life that we must be allowed to live without interference by the government of the united states in the form of the distinguished thieves and honored liars of congress and that corrupt entity known as the bureau of indian affairs.

Honor your treaties america.


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 Post subject: Re: A state of war between Crow Creek Dakotah Oyate and the US
PostPosted: Sat Apr 17, 2010 12:28 pm 
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Public Law 83-280 (18 U.S.C. § 1162, 28 U.S.C. § 1360)
18 U.S.C. § 1162. State Jurisdiction over offenses committed by or against Indians in the Indian country

(a) Each of the States or Territories listed in the following table shall have jurisdiction over offenses committed by or against Indians in the areas of Indian country listed opposite the name of the State or Territory to the same extent that such State or Territory has jurisdiction over offenses committed elsewhere within the State or Territory, and the criminal laws of such State or Territory shall have the same force and effect within such Indian country as they have elsewhere within the State or Territory:

State or Territory of Indian country affected
Alaska All Indian country within the State, except that on Annette Islands, the Metlakatla Indian community may exercise jurisdiction over offenses committed by Indians in the same manner in which such jurisdiction may be exercised by Indian tribes in Indian country over which State jurisdiction has not been extended.
California All Indian country within the State.
Minnesota All Indian country within the State, except the Red Lake Reservation.
Nebraska All Indian country within the State
Oregon All Indian country within the State, except the Warm Springs Reservation.
Wisconsin All Indian country within the State.

(b) Nothing in this section shall authorize the alienation, encumbrance, or taxation of any real or personal property, including water rights, belonging to any Indian or any Indian tribe, band, or community that is held in trust by the United States or is subject to a restriction against alienation imposed by the United States; or shall authorize regulation of the use of such property in a manner inconsistent with any Federal treaty, agreement, or statute or with any regulation made pursuant thereto; or shall deprive any Indian or any Indian tribe, band, or community of any right, privilege, or immunity afforded under Federal treaty, agreement, or statute with respect to hunting, trapping, or fishing or the control, licensing, or regulation thereof.

(c) The provisions of sections 1152 and 1153 of this chapter shall not be applicable within the areas of Indian country listed in subsection (a) of this section as areas over which the several States have exclusive jurisdiction.
28 U.S.C. § 1360. State civil jurisdiction in actions to which Indians are parties

(a) Each of the States listed in the following table shall have jurisdiction over civil causes of action between Indians or to which Indians are parties which arise in the areas of Indian country listed opposite the name of the State to the same extent that such State has jurisdiction over other civil causes of action, and those civil laws of such State that are of general application to private persons or private property shall have the same force and effect within such Indian country as they have elsewhere within the State:


State of Indian country affected
Alaska All Indian country within the State.
California All Indian country within the State.
Minnesota All Indian country within the State, except the Red Lake Reservation.
Nebraska All Indian country within the State
Oregon All Indian country within the State, except the Warm Springs Reservation.
Wisconsin All Indian country within the State.

(b) Nothing in this section shall authorize the alienation, encumbrance, or taxation of any real or personal property, including water rights, belonging to any Indian or any Indian tribe, band, or community that is held in trust by the United States or is subject to a restriction against alienation imposed by the United States; or shall authorize regulation of the use of such property in a manner inconsistent with any Federal treaty, agreement, or statute or with any regulation made pursuant thereto; or shall confer jurisdiction upon the State to adjudicate, in probate proceedings or otherwise, the ownership or right to possession of such property or any interest therein.

(c) Any tribal ordinance or custom heretofore or hereafter adopted by an Indian tribe, band, or community in the exercise of any authority which it may possess shall, if not inconsistent with any applicable civil law of the State, be given full force and effect in the determination of civil causes of action pursuant to this section.
25 U.S.C. § 1321. Assumption by State of criminal jurisdiction

(a) Consent of United States; force and effect of criminal laws
The consent of the United States is hereby given to any State not having jurisdiction over criminal offenses committed by or against Indians in the areas of Indian country situated within such State to assume, with the consent of the Indian tribe occupying the particular Indian country or part thereof which could be affected by such assumption, such measure of jurisdiction over any or all of such offenses committed within such Indian country or any part thereof as may be determined by such State to the same extent that such State has jurisdiction over any such offense committed elsewhere within the State, and the criminal laws of such State shall have the same force and effect within such Indian country or part thereof as they have elsewhere within that State.

(b) Alienation, encumbrance, taxation, and use of property; hunting, trapping, or fishing
Nothing in this section shall authorize the alienation, encumbrance, or taxation of any real or personal property, including water rights, belonging to any Indian or any Indian tribe, band, or community that is held in trust by the United States or is subject to a restriction against alienation imposed by the United States; or shall authorize regulation of the use of such property in a manner inconsistent with any Federal treaty, agreement, or statute or with any regulation made pursuant thereto; or shall deprive any Indian or any Indian tribe, band, or community of any right, privilege, or immunity afforded under Federal treaty, agreement, or statute with respect to hunting, trapping, or fishing or the control, licensing, or regulation thereof.

25 U.S.C. § 1322. Assumption by State of civil jurisdiction

(a) Consent of United States; force and effect of civil laws
The consent of the United States is hereby given to any State not having jurisdiction over civil causes of action between Indians or to which Indians are parties which arise in the areas of Indian country situated within such State to assume, with the consent of the tribe occupying the particular Indian country or part thereof which would be affected by such assumption, such measure of jurisdiction over any or all such civil causes of action arising within such Indian country or any part thereof as may be determined by such State to the same extent that such State has jurisdiction over other civil causes of action, and those civil laws of such State that are of general application to private persons or private property shall have the same force and effect within such Indian country or part thereof as they have elsewhere within that State.

(b) Alienation, encumbrance, taxation, use, and probate of property
Nothing in this section shall authorize the alienation, encumbrance, or taxation of any real or personal property, including water rights, belonging to any Indian or any Indian tribe, band, or community that is held in trust by the United States or is subject to a restriction against alienation imposed by the United States; or shall authorize regulation of the use of such property in a manner inconsistent with any Federal treaty, agreement, or statute, or with any regulation made pursuant thereto; or shall confer jurisdiction upon the State to adjudicate, in probate proceedings or otherwise, the ownership or right to possession of such property or any interest therein.

(c) Force and effect of tribal ordinances or customs
Any tribal ordinance or custom heretofore or hereafter adopted by an Indian tribe, band, or community in the exercise of any authority which it may possess shall, if not inconsistent with any applicable civil law of the State, be given full force and effect in the determination of civil causes of action pursuant to this section.

25 U.S.C. § 1323. Retrocession of jurisdiction by State

(a) Acceptance by United States
The United States is authorized to accept a retrocession by any State of all or any measure of the criminal or civil jurisdiction, or both, acquired by such State pursuant to the provisions of section 1162 of title 18, section 1360 of title 28, or section 7 of the Act of August 15, 1953 (67 Stat. 588), as it was in effect prior to its repeal by subsection (b) of this section.

(b) Repeal of statutory provisions
Section 7 of the Act of August 15, 1953 (67 Stat. 588), is hereby repealed, but such repeal shall not affect any cession of jurisdiction made pursuant to such section prior to its repeal.

25 U.S.C. § 1324. Amendment of State constitutions or statutes to remove legal impediment; effective date

Notwithstanding the provisions of any enabling Act for the admission of a State, the consent of the United States is hereby given to the people of any State to amend, where necessary, their State constitution or existing statutes, as the case may be, to remove any legal impediment to the assumption of civil or criminal jurisdiction in accordance with the provisions of this subchapter. The provisions of this subchapter shall not become effective with respect to such assumption of jurisdiction by any such State until the people thereof have appropriately amended their State constitution or statutes, as the case may be.

25 U.S.C. § 1325. Abatement of actions
(a) Pending actions or proceedings; effect of cession
No action or proceeding pending before any court or agency of the United States immediately prior to any cession of jurisdiction by the United States pursuant to this subchapter shall abate by reason of that cession. For the purposes of any such action or proceeding, such cession shall take effect on the day following the date of final determination of such action or proceeding.

(b) Criminal actions; effect of cession
No cession made by the United States under this subchapter shall deprive any court of the United States of jurisdiction to hear, determine, render judgment, or impose sentence in any criminal action instituted against any person for any offense committed before the effective date of such cession, if the offense charged in such action was cognizable under any law of the United States at the time of the commission of such offense. For the purposes of any such criminal action, such cession shall take effect on the day following the date of final determination of such action.

25 U.S.C. § 1326. Special election

State jurisdiction acquired pursuant to this subchapter with respect to criminal offenses or civil causes of action, or with respect to both, shall be applicable in Indian country only where the enrolled Indians within the affected area of such Indian country accept such jurisdiction by a majority vote of the adult Indians voting at a special election held for that purpose. The Secretary of the Interior shall call such special election under such rules and regulations as he may prescribe, when requested to do so by the tribal council or other governing body, or by 20 per centum of such enrolled adults.

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 Post subject: Re: A state of war between Crow Creek Dakotah Oyate and the US
PostPosted: Sat Apr 17, 2010 12:39 pm 
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PL 280 was a direct assault on the sovereign rights of the First Nations in those states listed. It must also be remembered when considering this that this was also the time of the federal governement's attempted termination of First Nations as sovereign nations.

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 Post subject: Re: A state of war between Crow Creek Dakotah Oyate and the US
PostPosted: Mon Apr 19, 2010 6:50 am 
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FORT LARAMIE TREATY OF 1868
APRIL 29, 1868
TREATY WITH THE SIOUX-- BRULÉ, OGLALA, MINICONJOU, YANKTONAI, HUNKPAPA, BLACKFEET, CUTHEAD, TWO KETTLE, SANS ARCS, AND SANTEE--AND ARAPAHO

15 Stat., 635.
Ratified, Feb. 16, 1869.
Proclaimed, Feb. 24, 1869

Articles of a treaty made and concluded by and between Lieutenant-General William T. Sherman, General William S. Harney, General Alfred H. Terry, General C. C,. Augur, J. B. Henderson, Nathaniel G. Taylor, John B. Sanborn, and Samuel F. Tappan, duly appointed commissioners on the part of the United States, and the different bands of the Sioux Nation of Indians, by their chiefs and head-men, whose names are hereto subscribed, they being duly authorized to act in the premises.

ARTICLE 1. From this day forward all war between the parties to this agreement shall forever cease. The Government of the United States desires peace, and its honor is hereby pledged to keep it. The Indians desire peace, and they now pledge their honor to maintain it.

If bad men among the whites, or among other people subject to the authority of the United States, shall commit any wrong upon the person or property of the Indians, the United States will, upon proof made to the agent and forwarded to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs at Washington City, proceed at once to cause the offender to be arrested and punished according to the laws of the United States, and also re-imburse the injured person for the loss sustained.
If bad men among the Indians shall commit a wrong or depredation upon the person or property of any one, white, black, or Indian, subject to the authority of the United States, and at peace therewith, the Indians herein named solemnly agree that they will, upon proof made to their agent and notice by him, deliver up the wrong-doer to the United States, to be tried and punished according to its laws; and in case they wilfully refuse so to do, the person injured shall be re-imbursed for his loss from the annuities or other moneys due or to become due to them under this or other treaties made with the United States. And the President, on advising with the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, shall prescribe such rules and regulations for ascertaining damages under the provisions of this article as in his judgment may be proper. But no one sustaining loss while violating the provisions of this treaty or the laws of the United States shall be re-imbursed therefor.

ARTICLE 2. The United States agrees that the following district of country, to wit, viz: commencing on the east bank of the Missouri River where the forty-sixth parallel of north latitude crosses the same, thence along low-water mark down said east bank to a point opposite where the northern line of the State of Nebraska strikes the river, thence west across said river, and along the northern line of Nebraska to the one hundred and fourth degree of longitude west from Greenwich, thence north on said meridian to a point where the forty-sixth parallel of north latitude intercepts the same, thence due east along said parallel to the place of beginning; and in addition thereto, all existing reservations on the east bank of said river shall be, and the same is, set apart for the absolute and undisturbed use and occupation of the Indians herein named, and for such other friendly tribes or individual Indians as from time to time they may be willing, with the consent of the United States, to admit amongst them; and the United States now solemnly agrees that no persons except those herein designated and authorized so to do, and except such officers, agents, and employes of the Government as may be authorized to enter upon Indian reservations in discharge of duties enjoined by law, shall ever be permitted to pass over, settle upon, or reside in the territory described in this article, or in such territory as may be added to this reservation for the use of said Indians, and henceforth they will and do hereby relinquish all claims or right in and to any portion of the United States or Territories, except such as is embraced within the limits aforesaid, and except as hereinafter provided.

ARTICLE 3. If it should appear from actual survey or other satisfactory examination of said tract of land that it contains less than one hundred and sixty acres of tillable land for each person who, at the time, may be authorized to reside on it under the provisions of this treaty, and a very considerable number of such persons shall be disposed to commence cultivating the soil as farmers, the United States agrees to set apart, for the use of said Indians, as herein provided, such additional quantity of arable land, adjoining to said reservation, or as near to the same as it can be obtained, as may be required to provide the necessary amount.

ARTICLE 4. The United States agrees, at its own proper expense, to construct at some place on the Missouri River, near the center of said reservation, where timber and water may be convenient, the following buildings, to wit: a warehouse, a store-room for the use of the agent in storing goods belonging to the Indians, to cost not less than twenty-five hundred dollars; an agency-building for the residence of the agent, to cost not exceeding three thousand dollars; a residence for the physician, to cost not more than three thousand dollars; and five other buildings, for a carpenter, farmer, blacksmith, miller, and engineer, each to cost not exceeding two thousand dollars; also a schoolhouse or mission-building, so soon as a sufficient number of children can be induced by the agent to attend school, which shall not cost exceeding five thousand dollars.

The United States agrees further to cause to be erected on said reservation, near the other buildings herein authorized, a good steam circular-saw mill, with a grist-mill and shingle-machine attached to the same, to cost not exceeding eight thousand dollars.

ARTICLE 5. The United States agrees that the agent for said Indians shall in the future make his home at the agency-building; that he shall reside among them, and keep an office open at all times for the purpose of prompt and diligent inquiry into such matters of complaint by and against the Indians as may be presented for investigation under the provisions of their treaty stipulations, as also for the faithful discharge of other duties enjoined on him by law. In all cases of depredation on person or property he shall cause the evidence to be taken in writing and forwarded, together with his findings, to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, whose decision, subject to the revision of the Secretary of the Interior, shall be binding on the parties to this treaty.

ARTICLE 6. if any individual belonging to said tribes of Indians, or legally incorporated with them, being the head of a family, shall desire to commence farming, he shall have the privilege to select, in the presence and with the assistance of the agent then in charge, a tract of land within said reservation, not exceeding three hundred and twenty acres in extent, which tract, when so selected, certified, and recorded in the "land-book," as herein directed, shall cease to be held in common, but the same may be occupied and held in the exclusive possession of the person selecting it, and of his family, so long as he or they may continue to cultivate it.

Any person over eighteen years of age, not being the head of a family, may in like manner select and cause to be certified to him or her, for purposes of cultivation, a quantity of land not exceeding eighty acres in extent, and thereupon be entitled to the exclusive possession of the same as above directed.

For each tract of land so selected a certificate, containing a description thereof and the name of the person selecting it, with a certificate endorsed thereon that the same has been recorded, shall be delivered to the party entitled to it, by the agent, after the same shall have been recorded by him in a book to be kept in his office, subject to inspection, which said book shall be known as the "Sioux Land-Book."

The President may, at any time, order a survey of the reservation, and, when so surveyed, Congress shall provide for protecting the rights of said settlers in their improvements, and may fix the character of the title held by each. The United States may pass such laws on the subject of alienation and descent of property between the Indians and their descendants as may be thought proper. And it is further stipulated that any male Indians, over eighteen years of age, of any band or tribe that is or shall hereafter become a party to this treaty, who now is or who shall hereafter become a resident or occupant of any reservation or Territory not included in the tract of country designated and described in this treaty for the permanent home of the Indians, which is not mineral land, nor reserved by the United States for special purposes other than Indian occupation, and who shall have made improvements thereon of the value of two hundred dollars or more, and continuously occupied the same as a homestead for the term of three years, shall be entitled to receive from the United States a patent for one hundred and sixty acres of land including his said improve-meats, the same to be in the form of the legal subdivisions of the surveys of the public lands. Upon application in writing, sustained by the proof of two disinterested witnesses, made to the register of the local land-office when the land sought to be entered is within a land district, and when the tract sought to be entered is not in any land district, then upon said application and proof being made to the Commissioner of the General Land-Office, and the right of such Indian or Indians to enter such tract or tracts of land shall accrue and be perfect from the date of his first improvements thereon, and shall continue as long as he continues his residence and improvements, and no longer'. And any Indian or Indians receiving a patent for land under the foregoing provisions, shall thereby and from thenceforth become and be a citizen of the United States, and be entitled to all the privileges and immunities of such citizens, and shall, at the same time, retain all his rights to benefits accruing to Indians under this treaty.

ARTICLE 7. In order to insure the civilization of the Indians entering into this treaty, the necessity of education is admitted, especially of such of them as are or may be settled on said agricultural reservations, and they therefore pledge themselves to compel their children, male and female, between the ages of six and sixteen years, to attend school; and it is hereby made the duty of the agent for said Indians to see that this stipulation is strictly complied with; and the United States agrees that for every thirty children between said ages who can be induced or compelled to attend school, a house shall be provided and a teacher competent to teach the elementary branches of an English education shall be furnished, who will reside among said Indians, and faithfully discharge his or her duties as a teacher. The provisions of this article to continue for not less than twenty years.

ARTICLE 8. When the head of a family or lodge shall have selected lands and received his certificate as above directed, and the agent shall be satisfied that he intends in good faith to commence cultivating the soil for a living, he shall be entitled to receive seeds and agricultural implements for the first year, not exceeding in value one hundred dollars, and for each succeeding year he shall continue to farm, for a period of three years more, he shall be entitled to receive seeds and implements as aforesaid, not exceeding in value twenty-five dollars.

And it is further stipulated that such persons as commence farming shall receive instruction from the farmer herein provided for, and whenever more than one hundred persons shall enter upon the cultivation of the soil, a second blacksmith shall be provided, with such iron, steel, and other material as may be needed.

ARTICLE 9. At any time after ten years from the making of this treaty, the United States shall have the privilege of withdrawing the physician, farmer, blacksmith, carpenter, engineer, and miller herein provided for, but in case of such withdrawal, an additional sum thereafter of ten thousand dollars per annum shall be devoted to the education of said Indians, and the Commissioner of Indian Affairs shall, upon careful inquiry into their condition, make such rules and regulations for the expenditure of said sum as will best promote the educational and moral improvement of said tribes.

ARTICLE 10. In lieu of all sums of money or other annuities provided to be paid to the Indians herein named, under any treaty or treaties heretofore made, the United States agrees to deliver at the agency-house on the reservation herein named, on or before the first day of August of each year, for thirty years, the following articles, to wit:

For each male person over fourteen years of age, a suit of good substantial woolen clothing, consisting of coat, pantaloons, flannel shirt, hat, and a pair of home-made socks.

For each female over twelve years of age, a flannel skirt, or the goods necessary to make it, a pair of woolen hose, twelve yards of calico, and twelve yards of cotton domestics.

For the boys and girls under the ages named, such flannel and cotton goods as may be needed to make each a suit as aforesaid, together with a pair of woolen hose for each.

And in order that the Commissioner of Indian Affairs may be able to estimate properly for the articles herein named, it shall be the duty of the agent each year to forward to him a full and exact census of the Indians, on which the estimate from year to year can be based.

And in addition to the clothing herein named, the sum of ten dollars for each person entitled to the beneficial effects of this treaty shall be annually appropriated for a period of thirty years, while such persons roam and hunt, and twenty dollars for, each person who engages in farming, to be used by the Secretary of the Interior in the purchase of such articles as from time to time the condition and necessities of the Indians may indicate to be proper. And if within the thirty years, at any time, it shall appear that the amount of money needed for clothing under this article can be appropriated to better uses for the Indians named herein, Congress may, by law, change the appropriation to other purposes; but in no event shall the amount of this appropriation be withdrawn or discontinued for the period named. And the President shall annually detail an officer of the Army to be present and attest the delivery of all the goods herein named to the Indians, and he shall inspect and report on the quantity and quality of the goods and the manner of their delivery. And it is hereby expressly stipulated that each Indian over the age of four years, who shall have removed to and settled permanently upon said reservation and complied with the stipulations of this treaty, shall be entitled to receive from the United States, for the period of four years after he shall have settled upon said reservation, one pound of meat and one pound of flour per day, provided the Indians cannot furnish their own subsistence at an earlier date. And it is further stipulated that the United States will furnish and deliver to each lodge of Indians or family of persons legally incorporated with them, who shall remove to the reservation herein described and commence farming, one good American cow, and one good well-broken pair of American oxen within sixty days after such lodge or family shall have so settled upon said reservation.

ARTICLE 11. In consideration of the advantages and benefits conferred by this treaty, and the many pledges of friendship by the United States, the tribes who are parties to this agreement hereby stipulate that they will relinquish all right to occupy permanently the territory outside their reservation as herein defined, but yet reserve the right to hunt on any lands north of North Platte, and on the Republican Fork of the Smoky Hill River, so long as the buffalo may range thereon in such numbers as to justify the chase. And they, the said Indians, further expressly agree:

1st. That they will withdraw all opposition to the construction of the railroads now being built on the plains.

2d. That they will permit the peaceful construction of any railroad not passing over their reservation as herein defined.

3d. That they will not attack any persons at home, or travelling, nor molest or disturb any wagon-trains, coaches, mules, or cattle belonging to the people of the United States, or to persons friendly therewith.

4th. They will never capture, or carry off from the settlements, white women or children.

5th. They will never kill or scalp white men, nor attempt to do them harm.

6th. They withdraw all pretence of opposition to the construction of the railroad now being built along the Platte River and westward to the Pacific Ocean, and they will not in future object to the construction of railroads, wagon-roads, mail-stations, or other works of utility or necessity, which may be ordered or permitted by the laws of the United States. But should such roads or other works be constructed on the lands of their reservation, the Government will pay the tribe whatever amount of damage may be assessed by three disinterested commissioners to be appointed by the President for that purpose, one of said commissioners to be a chief or head-man of the tribe.

7th. They agree to withdraw all opposition to the military posts or roads now established south of the North Platte River, or that may be established, not in violation of treaties heretofore made or hereafter to be made with any of the Indian tribes.

ARTICLE 12. No treaty for the cession of any portion or part of the reservation herein described which may be held in common shall be of any validity or force as against the said Indians, unless executed and signed by at least three-fourths of all the adult male Indians, occupying or interested in the same; and no cession by the tribe shall be understood or construed in such manner as to deprive, without his consent, any individual member of the tribe of his rights to any tract of land selected by him, as provided in article 6 of this treaty.

ARTICLE 13. The United States hereby agrees to furnish annually to the Indians the physician, teachers, carpenter, miller, engineer, farmer, and blacksmiths as herein contemplated, and that such appropriations shall be made from time to time, on the estimates of the Secretary of the Interior, as will be sufficient to employ such persons.

ARTICLE 14. it is agreed that the sum of five hundred dollars annually, for three years from date, shall be expended in presents to the ten persons of said tribe who in the judgment of the agent may grow the most valuable crops for the respective year.

ARTICLE 15. The Indians herein named agree that when the agency-house or other buildings shall be constructed on the reservation named, they will regard said reservation their permanent home, and they will make no permanent settlement elsewhere; but they shall have the right, subject to the conditions and modifications of this treaty, to hunt, as stipulated in Article 11 hereof.

ARTICLE 16. The United States hereby agrees and stipulates that the country north of the North Platte River and east of the summits of the Big Horn Mountains shall be held and considered to be unceded Indian territory, and also stipulates and agrees that no white person or persons shall be permitted to settle upon or occupy any portion of the same; or without the consent of the Indians first had and obtained, to pass through the same; and it is further agreed by the United States that within ninety days after the conclusion of peace with all the bands of the Sioux Nation, the military posts now established in the territory in this article named shall be abandoned, and that the road leading to them and by them to the settlements in the Territory of Montana shall be closed.

ARTICLE 17. It is hereby expressly understood and agreed by and between the respective parties to this treaty that the execution of this treaty and its ratification by the United States Senate shall have the effect, and shall be construed as abrogating and annulling all treaties and agreements heretofore entered into between the respective parties hereto, so far as such treaties and agreements obligate the United States to furnish and provide money, clothing, or other articles of property to such Indians and bands of Indians as become parties to this treaty, but no further.

In testimony of all which, we, the said commissioners, and we, the chiefs and headmen of the Brulé' band of the Sioux nation, have hereunto set our hands and seals at Fort Laramie, Dakota Territory, this twenty-ninth day of April, in the year one thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight.

N. G. Taylor, [SEAL]
W. T. Sherman, [SEAL]
Lieutenant-General.
Wm. S. Harney, [SEAL]
Brevet Major-General U. S. Army.
John B. Sanborn, [SEAL]
S. F. Tappan, [SEAL]
C. C. Augur, [SEAL]
Brevet Major-General.
Alfred H. Terry, [SEAL]
Brevet Major-General U. S. Army.


Attest:
A. S. H. White, Secretary.


Executed on the part of the Brulé band of Sioux by the chiefs and headmen whose names are hereto annexed, they being thereunto duly authorized, at Fort Laramie, D. T., the twenty-ninth day of April, in the year A. D. 1868.

Ma-za-pon-kaska, his x mark, Iron Shell. [SEAL]
Wah-pat-shah, his x mark, Red Leaf. [SEAL]
Hah-sah-pah, his x mark, Black Horn. [SEAL]
Zin-tah-gah-lat-skah, his x mark, Spotted Tail. [SEAL]
Zin-tah-skah, his x mark, White Tail. [SEAL]
Me-wah-tah-ne-ho-skah, his x mark, Tall Mandas. [SEAL]
She-cha-chat-kah, his x mark, Bad Left Hand. [SEAL]
No-mah-no-pah, his x mark, Two and Two. [SEAL]
Tah-tonka-skah, his x mark, White Bull. [SEAL]
Con-ra-washta, his x mark, Pretty Coon. [SEAL]
Ha-cah-cah-she-chah, his x mark, Bad Elk. [SEAL]
Wa-ha-ka-zah-ish-tah, his x mark, Eye Lance. [SEAL]
Ma-to-ha-ke-tah, his x mark, Bear that looks behind. [SEAL]
Bella-tonka-tonka, his x mark, Big Partisan. [SEAL]
Mah-to-ho-honka, his x mark, Swift Bear. [SEAL]
To-wis-ne, his x mark, Cold Place. [SEAL]
Ish-tah-skah, his x mark, White Eyes. [SEAL]
Ma-ta-loo-zah, his x mark, Fast Bear. [SEAL]
As-hah-kah-nah-zhe, his x mark, Standing Elk. [SEAL]
Can-te-te-ki-ya, his x mark, The Brave Heart. [SEAL]
Shunka-shaton, his x mark, Day Hawk. [SEAL]
Tatanka-wakon, his Sacred Bull. [SEAL]
Mapia shaton, his x mark, Hawk Cloud. [SEAL]
Ma-sba-a-ow, his x mark, Stands and Comes. [SEAL]
Shon-ka-ton-ka, his x mark, Big Dog. [SEAL]


Attest:
Ashton S. H. White, secretary of commission.
George B. Withs, phonographer to commission.
Geo. H. Holtzman.
John D. Howlana.
James C. O'Connor.
Chas. E. Guern, interpreter.
Leon F. Pallardy, interpreter.
Nicholas Janis, interpreter.


Executed on the part of the Ogallalah band of Sioux by the chiefs and headmen whose names are hereto subscribed, they being thereunto duly authorized, at Fort Laramie, the twenty-fifth day of May, in the year A. D. 1868.

Tah-shun-ka-co-qui-pah, his x mark, Man-afraid-of-his-horses. [SEAL]
Sha-ton-skah, his x mark, White Hawk. [SEAL]
Sha-ton-sapah, his x mark, Black Hawk. [SEAL]
E-ga-mon-ton-ka-sapah, his x mark, Black Tiger. [SEAL]
Oh-wah-she-cha, his x mark, Bad Wound. [SEAL]
Pah-gee, his x mark, Grass. [SEAL]
Wah-non-reh-che-geh, his x mark, Ghost Heart. [SEAL]
Con-reeh, his x mark, Crow. [SEAL]
Oh-he-te-kah, his x mark,The Brave. [SEAL]
Tah-ton-kah-he-yo-ta-kah, his x mark, Sitting Bull. [SEAL]
Shon-ka-oh-wah-mon-ye, his x mark, Whirlwind Dog. [SEAL]
Ha-hah-kah-tah-mieeh, his x mark, Poor Elk. [SEAL]
Wam-bu-lee-wah-kon, his x mark, Medicine Eagle. [SEAL]
Chon-gah-ma-he-to-hans-ka, his x mark, High Wolf. [SEAL]
Wah-se-chun-ta-sbun-kah, his x mark, American Horse. [SEAL]
Mah-hah-mah-ha-mak-near, his x mark, Man that walks under the ground. [SEAL]
Mah-to-tow-pah, his x mark, Four Bears. [SEAL]
Ma-to-wee-sha-kta, his x mark, One that kills the bear. [SEAL]
Oh-tah-kee-toka-wee-chakta, his x mark, One that kills in a hard place. [SEAL]
Tah-ton-kah-ta-mieeh, his x mark, The poor Bull. [SEAL]
Oh-huns-ee-ga-non-sken, his x mark, Mad Shade. [SEAL]
Shah-ton-oh-nah-om-minne-ne-oh-minne, his x mark, Whirl ing Hawk. [SEAL]
Mah-to-ehun-ka-oh, his x mark, Bear's Back. [SEAL]
Che-ton-wee-koh, his x mark, Fool Hawk. [SEAL]
Wah-hoh-ke-za-ah-hah, his x mark, One that has the lance. [SEAL]
Shon-gah-manni-toh-tan-ka-seh, his x mark, Big Wolf Foot. [SEAL]
Eh-ton-kah, his x mark,Big Mouth. [SEAL]
Ma-pah-che-tah, his x mark, Bad Hand. [SEAL]
Wah-ke-yun-shah, his x mark, Red Thunder. [SEAL]
Wak-sah, his x mark, One that Cuts Off. [SEAL]
Cham-nom-qui-yah, his x mark, One that Presents the Pipe. [SEAL]
Wah-ke-ke-yan-puh-tah, his x mark, Fire Thunder. [SEAL]
Mah-to-nonk-pah-ze, his x mark, Bear with Yellow Ears. [SEAL]
Con-ree-teh-ka, his x mark, The Little Crow. [SEAL]
He-hup-pah-toh, his x mark, The Blue War Club. [SEAL]
Shon-kee-toh, his x mark, The Blue Horse. [SEAL]
Wam-Balla-oh-con-quo, his x mark, Quick Eagle. [SEAL]
Ta-tonka-suppa, his x mark, Black Bull. [SEAL]
Moh-to-ha-she-na, his x mark, The Bear Hide. [SEAL]


Attest:
S. E. Ward.
Jas. C. O'Connor.
J. M. Sherwood.
W. C. Slicer.
Sam Deon.
H. M. Matthews.
Joseph Bissonette, interpreter.
Nicholas Janis, interpreter.
Lefroy Jott, interpreter.
Antoine Janis, interpreter.

Executed on the part of the Minneconjou band of Sioux by the chiefs and headmen whose names are hereto subscribed, they being thereunto duly authorized.


At Fort Laramie, D. T., May 26, 68, 13 names.

Heh-won-ge-chat, his x mark, One Horn. [SEAL]
Oh-pon-ah-tah-e-manne, his x mark, The Elk that bellows Walking. [SEAL]

At Fort Laramie, D. T., May 25, 68, 2 names.

Heh-ho-lah-reh-cha-skah, his x mark, Young White Bull, [SEAL]
Wah chah chum kah coh kee-pah, his x mark, One that is afraid of Shield. [SEAL]
He-hon-ne-shakta, his x mark, The Old Owl. [SEAL]
Moc-pe-a-toh, his x mark, Blue Cloud. [SEAL]
Oh-pong-ge-le-skah, his x mark Spotted Elk. [SEAL]
Tah-tonk-ka-hon-ke-schne, his x mark, Slow Bull. [SEAL]
Shonk-a-nee-shah-shah-a-tah-pe, his x mark, The Dog Chief. [SEAL]
Ma-to-tah-ta-tonk-ka, his x mark, Bull Bear. [SEAL]
Wom-beh-le-ton-kah, his x mark, The Big Eagle. [SEAL]
Ma-toh-eh-schne-lah, his x mark, The Lone Bear. [SEAL]
Mah-toh-ke-su-yah, his x mark, The One who Remembers the Bear. [SEAL]
Ma-toh-oh-he-to-keh, his x mark, The Brave Bear. [SEAL]
Eh-che-ma-heh, his x mark, The Runner. [SEAL]
Ti-ki-ya, his x mark, The Hard. He-ma-za, his x mark, Iron Horn. [SEAL]


Attest:
Jas. C. O'Connor.
Wm. H. Brown.
Nicholas Janis, interpreter.
Antoine Janis, interpreter.


Executed on the part of the Yanctonais band of Sioux by the chiefs and headmen whose names are hereto subscribed, they being thereunto duly authorized.

Mah-to-non-pah, his x mark, Two Bears. [SEAL]
Ma-to-hna-skin-ya, his x mark, Mad Bear. [SEAL]
He-o-pu-za, his x mark, Louzy. [SEAL]
Ah-ke-che-tah-che-ca-dan, his x mark, Little Soldier. [SEAL]
Mah-to-e-tan-chan, his x mark, Chief Bear. [SEAL]
Cu-wi-h-win, his x mark, Rotten Stomach. [SEAL]
Skun-ka-we-tko, his x mark, Fool Dog. [SEAL]
Ish-ta-sap-pah, his x mark, Black Eye. [SEAL]
Ih-tan-chan, his x mark, The Chief. [SEAL]
I-a-wi-ca-ka, his x mark, The one who Tells the Truth. [SEAL]
Ah-ke-che-tah, his x mark, The Soldier. [SEAL]
Ta-shi-na-gi, his x mark, Yellow Robe. [SEAL]
Nah-pe-ton-ka, his x mark, Big Hand. [SEAL]
Chan-tee-we-kto, his x mark, Fool Heart. [SEAL]
Hoh-gan-sah-pa, his x mark, Black Catfish. [SEAL]
Mah-to-wah-kan, his x mark, Medicine Bear. [SEAL]
Shun-ka-kan-sha, his x mark, Red Horse. [SEAL]
Wan-rode, his x mark, The Eagle. [SEAL]
Can-hpi-sa-pa, his x mark, Black Tomahawk. [SEAL]
War-he-le-re, his x mark, Yellow Eagle. [SEAL]
Cha-ton-che-ca, his x mark, Small Hawk, or Long Fare. [SEAL]
Shu-ger-mon-e-too-ha-ska, his x mark, Tall Wolf. [SEAL]
Ma-to-u-tah-kah, his x mark, Sitting Bear. [SEAL]
Hi-ha-cah-ge-na-skene, his x mark, Mad Elk. [SEAL]
Arapahoes:
Little Chief, his x mark. [SEAL]
Tall Bear, his x mark. [SEAL]
Top Man, his x mark. [SEAL]
Neva, his x mark. [SEAL]
The Wounded Bear, his x mark. [SEAL]
Thirlwind, his x mark The Fox, his x mark. [SEAL]
The Dog Big Mouth, his x mark. [SEAL]
Spotted Wolf, his x mark. [SEAL]
Sorrel Horse, his x mark. [SEAL]
Black Coal, his x mark. [SEAL]
Big Wolf, his x mark. [SEAL]
Knock-knee, his x mark. [SEAL]
Black Crow, his x mark. [SEAL]
The Lone Old Man, his x mark. [SEAL]
Paul, his x mark. [SEAL]
Black Bull, his x mark. [SEAL]
Big Track, his x mark. [SEAL]
The Foot, his x mark. [SEAL]
Black White, his x mark. [SEAL]
Yellow Hair, his x mark. [SEAL]
Little Shield, his x mark. [SEAL]
Black Bear, his x mark. [SEAL]
Wolf Mocassin, his x mark. [SEAL]
Big Robe, his x mark. [SEAL]
Wolf Chief, his x mark. [SEAL]


Witnesses:
Robt. P. McKibbin, captain, Fourth Infantry, brevet lieutenant-colonel, U. S. Army, commanding Fort Laramie.
Wm. H. Powell, brevet major, captain, Fourth Infantry.
Henry W. Patterson, captain, Fourth Infantry.
Theo. E. True, second lieutenant, Fourth Infantry.
W. G. Bullock.
Chas. E. Guern, special Indian interpreter for the peace commission.


Fort Laramie, Wg. T., Nov. 6, 1868

Makh-pi-ah-lu-tah, his x mark, Red Cloud. [SEAL]
Wa-ki-ah-we-cha-shah, his x mark, Thunder Man. [SEAL]
Ma-zah-zah-geh, his x mark, Iron Cane. [SEAL]
Wa-umble-why-wa-ka-tuyah, his x mark, High Eagle. [SEAL]
Ko-ke-pah, his x mark, Man Afraid. [SEAL]
Wa-ki-ah-wa-kou-ah, his x mark, Thunder Flying Running. [SEAL]


Witnesses:
W. McE. Dye, brevet colonel, U. S. Army, commanding.
A. B. Cain, captain, Fourth Infantry, brevet major, U. S. Army.
Robt. P. McKibbin, captain, Fourth Infantry, brevet lieutenant-colonel, U. S. Army.
Jno. Miller, captain, Fourth Infantry.
G. L. Luhn, first lieutenant, Fourth Infantry, brevet captain, U. S. Army.
H. C. Sloan, second lieutenant, Fourth Infantry.
Whittingham Cox, first lieutenant, Fourth Infantry.
A. W. Vogdes, first lieutenant, Fourth Infantry.
Butler D. Price, second lieutenant, Fourth Infantry.


HEADQRS., FORT LARAMIE, Novr. 6, 68.

Executed by the above on this date.
All of the Indians are Ogallalahs excepting Thunder Man and Thunder Flying Running, who are Brulés.


Wm. McE. Dye,
Major Fourth Infantry, and Brevet-Colonel
U. S. Army, Commanding.
Attest:
Jas. C. O'Connor.
Nicholas Janis, interpreter.
Franc. La Framboise, interpreter

P. J. De Smet, S.J., Missionary among the Indians.
Saml. D. Hinman, B. D., missionary.

Executed on the part of the Uncpapa bandof the Sioux, by the chiefs and headmen whose names are hereto subscribed, they being thereunto and duly authorized.

Co-dam-i-ya, his x mark, The Man that Goes in the Middle. [SEAL]
Ma-to-ca-wa-weksa, his x mark, Bear Rib. [SEAL]
Ta-to-ka-in-yan-ke, his x mark, Running Antelope. [SEAL]
Kan-gi-wa-ki-ta, his x mark, Looking Crow. [SEAL]
A-ki-ci-ta-han-ska, his x mark, Long Soldier. [SEAL]
Wa-ku-te-ma-ni, his x mark, The One who Shoots Walking. [SEAL]
Un-kca-ki-ka, his x mark, The Magpie. [SEAL]
Kan-gi-o-ta, his x mark, Plenty Crow. [SEAL]
Ha-ma-za, his x mark, Iron Horn. [SEAL]
Shun-ka-i-na-pin, his x mark, Wolf Necklace. [SEAL]
I-we-hi-yu, his x mark, The Man who Bleeds from the Mouth. [SEAL]
He-ha-ka-pa, his x mark, Elk Head. [SEAL]
I-zu-za, his x mark, Grind Stone. [SEAL]
Shun-ka-wi-tko, his x mark, Fool Dog. [SEAL]
Ma-kpi-ya-po, his x mark, Blue Cloud. [SEAL]
Wa-mni-pi-lu-ta, his x mark, Red Eagle. [SEAL]
Ma-to-can-te, his x mark, Bear's Heart. [SEAL]
A-ki-ci-ta-i-tan-can, his x mark, Chief Soldier. [SEAL]

Attest:
Jas. C. O'Connor.
Nicholas Janis,interpreter.
Franc. La Frambois[e], interpreter.
P. J. DeSmet, S.J., missionary among the Indians.
Saml. D. Hinman, missionary.

Executed on the part of the Blackfeet band of the Sioux by the chiefs and headmen whose names are hereto subscribed, they being thereunto duly authorized.

Can-te-pe-ta, his x mark, Fire Heart. [SEAL]
Wan-mdi-kte, his x mark, The One who Kills Eagle. [SEAL]
Sho-ta, his x mark, Smoke. [SEAL]
Wan-mdi-ma-ni, his x mark, Walking Eagle. [SEAL]
Wa-shi-cun-ya-ta-pi, his x mark, Chief White Man. [SEAL]
Kan-gi-i-yo-tan-ke, his x mark, Sitting Crow. [SEAL]
Pe-ji, his x mark, The Grass. [SEAL]
Kda-ma-ni, his x mark, The One that Rattles as he Walks. [SEAL]
Wah-han-ka-sa-pa, his x mark, Black Shield. [SEAL]
Can-te-non-pa, his x mark, Two Hearts. [SEAL]

Attest:
Jas. C. O'Connor.
Nicholas Janis,interpreter.
Franc. La Framboise, interpreter.
P. J. DeSmet, S.J., missionary among the Indians.
Saml. D. Hinman, missionary.

Executed on the part of the Cutheads band of the Sioux by the chiefs and headmen whose names are hereto subscribed, they being thereunto duly authorized.

To-ka-in-yan-ka, his x mark, The One who Goes Ahead Running. [SEAL]
Ta-tan-ka-wa-kin-yan, his x mark, Thunder Bull. [SEAL]
Sin-to-min-sa-pa, his x mark, All over Black. [SEAL]
Can-i-ca, his x mark, The One who Took the Stick. [SEAL]
Pa-tan-ka, his x mark, Big Head. [SEAL]

Attest:
Jas. C. O'Connor.
Nicholas Janis,interpreter.
Franc. La Frambois[e], interpreter.
P. J. DeSmet, S.J., missionary among the Indians.
Saml. D. Hinman, missionary.

Executed on the part of the Two Kettle band of the Sioux by the chiefs and headmen whose names are hereto subscribed, they being thereunto duly authorized.

Ma-wa-tan-ni-han-ska, his x mark, Long Mandan. [SEAL]
Can-kpe-du-ta, his x mark, Red War Club. [SEAL]
Can-ka-ga, his x mark, The Log. [SEAL]

Attest:
Jas. C. O'Connor.
Nicholas Janis,interpreter.
Franc. La Framboise, interpreter.
P. J. DeSmet, S.J., missionary among the Indians.
Saml. D. Hinman, missionary.

Executed on the part of the Sans Arch band of the Sioux by the chiefs and headmen whose names are hereto subscribed, they being thereunto duly authorized.

He-na-pin-wa-ni-ca, his x mark, The One that has Neither Horn. [SEAL]
Wa-inlu-pi-lu-ta, his x mark, Red Plume. [SEAL]
Ci-tan-gi, his x mark, Yellow Hawk. [SEAL]
He-na-pin-wa-ni-ca, is x mark, No Horn. [SEAL]

Attest:
Jas. C. O'Connor.
Nicholas Janis,interpreter.
Franc. La Frambois[e], interpreter.
P. J. DeSmet, S.J., missionary among the Indians.
Saml. D. Hinman, missionary.

Executed on the part of the Santee band of the Sioux by the chiefs and headmen whose names are hereto subscribed, they being thereunto duly authorized.

Wa-pah-shaw, his x mark, Red Ensig. [SEAL]
Wah-koo-tay, his x mark, Shooter. [SEAL]
Hoo-sha-sha, his x mark, Red Legs. [SEAL]
O-wan-cha-du-ta, his x mark, Scarlet all over. [SEAL]
Wau-mace-tan-ka, his mark x, Big Eagle. [SEAL]
Cho-tan-ka-e-na-pe, his x mark, Flute-player. [SEAL]
Ta-shun-ke-mo-za, his x mark, His Iron Dog. [SEAL]

Attest:
Saml. D. Hinman, missionary.
J. N. Chickering,
Second Lieutenant, Twenty-second Infantry, brevet captain, U.S. Army.
P. J. DeSmet, S.J.
Nicholas Janis,interpreter.
Franc. La Framboise, interpreter.

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 Post subject: Re: A state of war between Crow Creek Dakotah Oyate and the US
PostPosted: Thu Apr 29, 2010 3:39 pm 
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Location: Crow Creek, Dakota Territory
Twelve treaties... two hundred and five years later and the children of Dakotah Oyate are still suffering at the hands of the People of the united states and the distinguished thieves and honored liars of congress. More important is the fact the united states internal revenue service managed to extort 3 million dollars out of the mouths and bellies of the children of crow creek who already live a hand to mouth existence... like most children living on reservations in south dakotah.

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 Post subject: Re: A state of war between Crow Creek Dakotah Oyate and the US
PostPosted: Thu Apr 29, 2010 3:49 pm 
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Location: Crow Creek, Dakota Territory
I would also add that some involved in this land theft have referred to this as a "victory". Victory for who??? Certainly not the Old Ones or the Women and Children of crow creek. Does anyone remember that the women had to beg the soldiers for burlap flour bags to cover themselves when a heartbroken and exiled People first arrived at Crow Creek? Does anyone remember that almost all the Dakotah Children perished the first winter at Crow Creek? Does anyone remember the last time Patrick Duffy did his job as bureau of indian affairs superintendent at Crow Creek?
I remember and my children remember that we are not Sioux. We know that we are Dakotah of Dakotah Oyate and Dakotah land is never for sale.

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 Post subject: Re: A state of war between Crow Creek Dakotah Oyate and the US
PostPosted: Sat May 01, 2010 7:59 am 
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Location: Crow Creek, Dakota Territory
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ymvn1iYMuLQ

Mark my words People of the united states, distinguished thieves and honored liars of congress, mr buffalo soldier in the black house... and mark them well i am not afraid to die for my People. I remember that it is a good thing to give your life for your People and the People of Dakotah Oyate from Canada to the Dakotahs have suffered great injustice and continue to suffer to this day at the hands of the men and now women who are your elected representatives in the united states congress. Honor your treaties america.

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 Post subject: Re: A state of war between Crow Creek Dakotah Oyate and the US
PostPosted: Wed May 05, 2010 6:23 am 

Joined: Sun Dec 27, 2009 3:28 pm
Posts: 7
once the territory/trespassing fliers are put up, the IRS should respect the territorial authority, if not, then it will be overtly intentional, and thus, can be interpreted as an act of war.

at which point, you have 2 options; will it be a legal battle, or a military battle? either one looks shaky, as the deck is stacked against you in both ways, from armies of golden-tongued 'jew lawyers' and 'good old boy' southern judges, to joint department terrorist task force regiments who can retroactively say anything about dead natives, with 'enhanced evidence' to prove it, and be completely justified in shooting first and not bothering with names or civil rights.

and trust me, as big as it is, the IRS as an entity, wont give a flying fucked duck a care in the world, as to slips of paper on fences.... which is rather unfortunate, imo

governments should fear their populaces, not the populace fearing its government overlords. thank the goddess for the 2nd amendment.


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 Post subject: Re: A state of war between Crow Creek Dakotah Oyate and the US
PostPosted: Wed May 05, 2010 7:44 am 
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Location: Crow Creek, Dakota Territory
i have considered these many things that you speak of swrg and like my Ancestors i will ride to face the enemy even though i know the outcome must be defeat. that is the difference between being a soldier and a warrior. a soldier fights because he is told to... a warrior fights because he has been left no other alternative. there is no honor in being a soldier.

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 Post subject: Re: A state of war between Crow Creek Dakotah Oyate and the US
PostPosted: Sun May 09, 2010 12:34 pm 
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Location: Crow Creek, Dakota Territory
To the Distinguished Thieves and Honored Liars of congress... could you please sign the legislation clearing the 62 million dollars due the People of Crow Creek because of the damage done to Dakotah lands and families in additon to the annexed Dakotah lands surrounding the Pick Sloan dams down the length of the Missouri River. These are lands that your predecessors felt the People of the united states were entitled to. Please understand there are starving Dakotah children and elders at Crow Creek that could use that money.

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 Post subject: Re: A state of war between Crow Creek Dakotah Oyate and the US
PostPosted: Sun May 09, 2010 6:20 pm 
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Location: Zeeland, North Dakota
ghostwarrior wrote:
To the Distinguished Thieves and Honored Liars of congress... could you please sign the legislation clearing the 62 million dollars due the People of Crow Creek because of the damage done to Dakotah lands and families in additon to the annexed Dakotah lands surrounding the Pick Sloan dams down the length of the Missouri River. These are lands that your predecessors felt the People of the united states were entitled to. Please understand there are starving Dakotah children and elders at Crow Creek that could use that money.


I can only imagine the reply:

Quote:
Dear valued constituent,

Thank you for your continued support. Time are difficult and we do need more donations from people like you, I realize you donated all you can at this time, but keep in mind it takes money to bring about needed changes.

Again Thank you for your support,

Distinguished Thieves and Honored Liars of congress


This is an automated response, we trashed your letter without reading it as part of our paper-work reduction policy.

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 Post subject: Re: A state of war between Crow Creek Dakotah Oyate and the US
PostPosted: Wed May 12, 2010 10:15 am 
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Posts: 466
Location: Crow Creek, Dakota Territory
"If we must die, we die defending our rights."

Sitting Bull - Lakotah

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 Post subject: Re: A state of war between Crow Creek Dakotah Oyate and the US
PostPosted: Fri May 14, 2010 9:49 am 
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Joined: Sun Aug 30, 2009 7:58 am
Posts: 466
Location: Crow Creek, Dakota Territory
“My lands are where my dead lie buried.”

Tasunka Witko - Lakotah

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